The first facelift operations were carried out in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, although they were not officially advertised. At that time, to eliminate wrinkles and flabbiness of the skin, surgeons made cuts along the hairline, tightened the skin, and then stitched. However, after a few weeks, the patients felt unpleasant consequences: in response to stretching, the muscles of the face contracted, so the skin sagged again, and the sutures dispersed. Sketches depicting the first patients of plastic surgery resemble more pictures of Frankenstein than modern ideas about beauty. Despite many difficulties, the demand for plastic surgery remained stable, and already in the 70s of the last century, plastic surgery became a familiar procedure in Europe and the USA. Now, along with tightening the skin, use the so-called SMAS-technique: tightening the subcutaneous muscles, which reduces side effects and remission. Facelift operations are performed under anesthesia for several hours. As well as after any surgical operation, at the end of the procedure, puffiness and pain may develop. True, the unpleasant symptoms pass quickly, and the final result of the suspenders can be assessed after several months, when the skin is completely “used” to the new tone.
In addition to the classic facelift, endoscopic surgery is rapidly developing when very small incisions (1-1.5 cm) are made during cosmetic surgery, a microscopic video camera (endoscope) is inserted through the skin, which sends the image to the TV or computer screen, allowing you to control the micromanipulation process. Endoscopic eyebrow lifting, facial skin takes a short time, reduces traumatic consequences to a minimum. In addition, if the recovery after the usual facelift operation takes 2-3 weeks, the endoscopy method reduces this period to 7-10 days. True, endoscopic surgery has its limitations: it is effective for correcting minimal imperfections, while with pronounced wrinkles and loss of tone, classic facelifting has the greatest effect. The effect of plastic facelift keeps for 10-15 years, after which the procedure can be repeated or perform a more extensive operation.
Correction of facial features. After the first operations to tighten the skin were tried, patients began to think about facial features, forcing surgeons to experiment on creating perfect, classic beauty. So there were operations to change the shape of the nose, eyebrows, chin. For each patient, the cosmetic surgeon evaluates the appearance and determines which features are the most distant from the ideal proportions. This analysis is largely based on the criteria introduced by Leonard da Vinci. According to da Vinci, ideal features are characterized by the following parameters:
the tip of the ear on each side should be flush with the eyebrow;
the width of each eye must be equal to the distance between them;
the width of the mouth in a relaxed state should be equal to the distance between the iris;
The height of the nose should occupy about a third of the face, and at the same time be equal to the height of the ear and the distance between the eyes.
For a professional, it does not take long to evaluate the face of each patient and give recommendations on the correction of certain features. Computer modeling, which helps to create a face on the screen, which will result from the operation, actively helps in this matter.
Currently, the most popular surgery for the correction of the shape of the nose (the so-called “rhinoplasty”). Moreover, such procedures are not carried out at a young age, because in order to correct the final shape of the nose, it is necessary to wait until the skeleton is fully formed, including the nasal bones (not earlier than 15-16 years). Rhinoplasty is performed under general anesthesia, and within a few days after surgery, the patient can leave the clinic. True, it is rhinoplasty that takes the first place in the number of repeated operations. Psychologists associate this phenomenon with the fact that people are accustomed from birth to their nose, and subsequently often dissatisfied with the alteration of the form (however ideal it may be).
Another popular procedure is otoplasty, or “ear plastic”. Unlike all other plastic surgeries, otoplasty is actively carried out in childhood and makes it possible to correct protruding ears (lop-eared). Otoplasty does not require the placement of a person in a hospital, and the procedure under local anesthesia takes no more than an hour.
Legends of silicone breasts. Perhaps most of us first heard about plastic surgery as a method of breast augmentation. And although at first many people treated such operations with a share of neglect, now screen stars and housewives choose mammoplasty. The fact is that an increase in breast volume is not the only type of surgery. With the help of mammoplasty, you can improve the shape of the breast, restore the volume after pregnancy, sudden weight loss, due to loss of tone with age.